Help:IPA/Mandarin

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard Mandarin pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-cmn}}, {{IPAc-cmn}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Standard Chinese phonology for more detail on the sounds of Mandarin Chinese.

Consonants
IPAPinyinWade–GilesBopomofoChinese ExampleEnglish approximation
fffan
jy-/-i-yes
kgkskin
kk'kin
ll來(来)leaf
mmmoon
nnㄋ,ㄣ,ㄢnoon
ŋ-ngㄥ,ㄤsong
pbp幫(帮)span
pp'pan
ɻ[a]r-jrow
sssame
ʂshshow
tdtstop
tt'top
tsztsbuds
tsʰcts'cats
jchsomewhat like jean[b]
tɕʰqch'somewhat like cheese[b]
ɕxhs曉(晓)somewhat like sheep[b]
ʈʂzhchjar
ʈʂʰchch'church
ww-/-u-water
xhhorror
ɥyu-/-ü-[c]yü-/-ü-no English equivalent; like French huit
Vowels
IPAPinyinWade–GilesBopomofoChinese ExampleEnglish approximation
aaㄚ,ㄢ,ㄤ阿,安,盎car
erêrh
ɤeê / o[d]wood
ɛyan/-ianyen/-ienㄧㄢset
yuan/-üanㄩㄢ
eye/-ie, yue/-üeeh也,月hey
əen,[e] engên, êngㄣ,ㄥ本,冷atop
ɚerêrhfar [f]
iyi/-icity
owo/-uo[g]o[h]boy
ɻ̩zhi, chi, shi, riih[i]之,吃,師(师),日somewhat like American sir[j]
ɹ̩zi, ci, siû子,次,私no English equivalent
uwu/-ucool
ʊ-ong-ungㄨㄥ,ㄩㄥ冬,用book
yyu/-ü[c]yü/-üno English equivalent; like French lune
Diphthongs
aiaitime
auaosomewhat like out
eiei[e]face
ouou[e]歐(欧)show
Tones
IPAPinyinWade–GilesBopomofoChinese ExampleTone numberDescription
áāa1tone 1high level [˥]
ǎáa2ㄚˊtone 2mid rising [˧˥]
àǎa3ㄚˇtone 3medially, low [˩]; initially, mid falling [˧˩]; finally, low rising [˩˧]; in isolation, dipping [˧˩˧]
âàa4ㄚˋtone 4high falling [˥˩]
aaa0˙ㄚtone 0 or 5
(toneless)
mid [˧] after all tones but 4, where it is low [˩]
Note: Pinyin uses the same diacritics as IPA but with different values.

Notes

  1. ^ Also transcribed as ʐ in older literature.
  2. ^ a b c [ɕ, tɕ, tɕʰ] are always followed by [i], [j], [y], or [ɥ].
  3. ^ a b ü (/y/) is spelled u after j, q, x in pinyin since /u/ cannot occur after them.
  4. ^ This sound is spelled ⟨o⟩ after ⟨k, k', h⟩ in Wade-Giles.
  5. ^ a b c wei, you/yu, wen/wên are spelled respectively ui, iu, un in Pinyin and Wade-Giles but are pronounced identically when they are preceded by a consonant.
  6. ^ The rhotic vowel also appears in erhua.
  7. ^ This sound is spelled ⟨o⟩ after ⟨b, p, m, f⟩ in Pinyin.
  8. ^ ㄨㄛ is spelled as ⟨o⟩, except for ⟨k, k', h, sh⟩ (as ⟨kuo, k'uo, huo, shuo⟩) in Wade-Giles.
  9. ^ This symbol is rarely used and usually omitted during writing.
  10. ^ Voiced continuants (also transcribed [ɨ, ɯ] or [ʐ̩, z̩]) reflecting the character of the preceding consonant[clarification needed]